Stomach Aches and Pains: Do You Have Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

IBS affects at least 10–15 percent of adults and is a common issue around the world.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-term and many times reoccurring disorder that affects the functioning of your stomach and intestines. It usually involves disturbances in the colon and small intestine which can involve symptoms of:

  • abdominal pain or discomfort,
  • bloating or a sense of gaseousness, and
  • a change in bowel habits (diarrhea and/or constipation).

IBS affects at least 10–15 percent of adults and is a common issue around the world. In fact, it is second only to the common cold as a cause of absenteeism from work.

The Most Common Symptoms of IBS

Common symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome are abdominal pain and discomfort which are often improved with a bowel movement. The causes for abdominal pain are usually associated with a change in bowel habits (diarrhea and/or constipation).

Symptoms can change over time, with periods when symptoms flare up as well as periods of remission when they diminish or disappear. The main bowel habit can vary over time, alternating between constipation and diarrhea.

Other symptoms of IBS include:

  • bloating (a sensation of fullness in the belly),
  • urgency (the need to use a restroom in a hurry),
  • mucus (white or yellow liquid) in the stool, and
  • the sensation of incompletely passing stools.

How is IBS Diagnosed?

The first steps are to confidently recognize the diagnosis of IBS and remove the suspicion of other diseases. In making a positive diagnosis, a physician will check for the most common symptoms of IBS. The next important step is to look for signs and symptoms that suggest a condition other than IBS, such as inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, or celiac disease. These signs and symptoms are referred to as “alarm signs” or “red flags.” They include:

  • anemia and other abnormal blood tests
  • blood in the stool
  • unexplained weight loss
  • fever
  • new onset of symptoms at the age of 50 or older
  • family history of inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, or celiac disease

These alarm signs usually do not occur because of IBS. They suggest other medical problems. When these symptoms occur, you should tell your doctor right away.

If your doctor suspects you have IBS, an evaluation will follow starting with a detailed history to identify the characteristic symptoms of IBS, and a physical examination. There is no test for IBS. Lab blood and stool tests, x-rays, and endoscopic procedures (e.g., colonoscopy) are used to rule out other diseases of the bowel, which can present with similar symptoms. These tests are common for people with IBS.

Click here to read more.

ADC Endoscopy Specialists Center provides quality care with comfort and convenience to their patients in ColonoscopiesFlexible Sigmoidoscopies, and Esophogogastroduodenoscopy(EGD). ADC Endoscopy Specialists Center is licensed by the Texas Department of State Health Services and certified for Medicare services.

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Surefire Ways to Relieve Work Stress With a Vacation

Understand the benefits of taking time off from work, and heed these tips for a successful, stress-free break from the office.

Take a stress-free vacation

Vacations are important to your mental health. Stay organized at work so you can enjoy your time away from the office.

While it’s hard to fit into our busy schedules, taking some time off work is healthy. The many health benefits of taking a vacation include reduced blood pressure, relieved stress, reduced exhaustion and better-quality sleep. In other words, experts recommend the occasional break from work. 

More stress relieving benefits of taking a true break away from work include a boost of creativity, more time to spend on healthy habits and increased productivity.

But just the thought of taking a vacation stresses some people out. Many people chose to skip vacations because of the stress of being away from the office. It’s all about pre-vacation planning and a smooth transition out of the office.

What steps can I take before vacation to make sure my tasks get done without me?

  • Ensure that all project calendars are updated, and make sure the appropriate teammates are tagged in the calendars
  • Complete work as far in advance as possible before leaving, and update your teammates of the status
  • Set up an auto-email response and voicemail. It’s helpful to include an out-of-office message such as, “I’m on vacation through March 17. Please allow a delay in my response. If you need immediate assistance, please contact my colleague, jim@company.com.”
  • Delegate projects/responsibilities to your colleagues
  • Organize and clean your office space for a pleasant return
  • Have a plan in place in case of work emergencies, including points of contact and protocols
  • Plan a post-vacation debriefing with a trusted colleague

How do I destress during vacation?

While on vacation, stay disconnected! So much planning and preparation have gone into being away, so don’t worry about checking your phone/laptop to see what you’re missing. Turn off all notifications, leave work technology behind, and silence your personal cell phone. Give yourself permission to stay disconnected and have a great time.

How do I get back into work mode after vacation?

Once you’ve enjoyed your time away, getting back to work can be nerve-wracking. Of course, you wonder what you missed. To prevent this feeling, don’t overload your schedule for the day you get back. Spread out meetings for the week, meet with a colleague to review what you missed and spend time organizing and responding to emails.

Vacation doesn’t have to be stressful. Be strategic with your vacation planning, and follow through with your work responsibilities. Enjoy your vacation and all the health benefits it brings!

How Do I Take a Mini Vacation at Work?

  • Move! Set an alarm to get pull away from your desk, get out of your chair and stretch with a quick walk or a couple sets of stairs. Movement breaks are especially important for those who work desk jobs.
  • Take one day off! Even short interval breaks between long work days are necessary to keep your brain stimulated to produce better work.

Sleep Study Findings: Why Do We Sleep, Anyway?

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Hunger and Eating/Sleepiness and Sleep: Powerful Internal Drives

A resource from the Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School


While we might not often think about why we sleep, most of us acknowledge at some level that sleep makes us feel better. We feel more alert, more energetic, happier and better able to function following a good night of sleep. However, the fact that sleep makes us feel better and that going without sleep makes us feel worse only begins to explain why sleep might be necessary.

One way to think about the function of sleep is to compare it to another of our life-sustaining activities: eating. Hunger is a protective mechanism that has evolved to ensure that we consume the nutrients our bodies require to grow, repair tissues, and function properly. And although it is relatively easy to grasp the role that eating serves— given that it involves physically consuming the substances our bodies need—eating and sleeping are not as different as they might seem.

Both eating and sleeping are regulated by powerful internal drives. Going without food produces the uncomfortable sensation of hunger, while going without sleep makes us feel overwhelmingly sleepy. And just as eating relieves hunger and ensures that we obtain the nutrients we need, sleeping relieves sleepiness and ensures that we obtain the sleep we need. Still, the question remains: Why do we need sleep at all? Is there a single primary function of sleep, or does sleep serve many functions?

An Unanswerable Question?

Scientists have explored the question of why we sleep from many different angles. They have examined, for example, what happens when humans or other animals are deprived of sleep. In other studies, they have looked at sleep patterns in a variety of organisms to see if similarities or differences among species might reveal something about sleep’s functions. Yet, despite decades of research and many discoveries about other aspects of sleep, the question of why we sleep has been difficult to answer.

The lack of a clear answer to this challenging question does not mean that this research has been a waste of time. In fact, we now know much more about the function of sleep, and scientists have developed several promising theories to explain why we sleep. In light of the evidence they have gathered, it seems likely that no single theory will ever be proven correct. Instead, we may find that sleep is explained by two or more of these explanations. The hope is that by better understanding why we sleep, we will learn to respect sleep’s functions more and enjoy the health benefits it affords.

This essay outlines several current theories of why we sleep. To learn more about them, be sure to check out the “Bookshelf” feature at the end of this essay. There you’ll find links to articles by researchers who are studying this fascinating question.

What are Some Theories for Why We Sleep?

Inactivity Theory

One of the earliest theories of sleep, sometimes called the adaptive or evolutionary theory, suggests that inactivity at night is an adaptation that served a survival function by keeping organisms out of harm’s way at times when they would be particularly vulnerable. The theory suggests that animals that were able to stay still and quiet during these periods of vulnerability had an advantage over other animals that remained active. These animals did not have accidents during activities in the dark, for example, and were not killed by predators. Through natural selection, this behavioral strategy presumably evolved to become what we now recognize as sleep.

A simple counter-argument to this theory is that it is always safer to remain conscious in order to be able to react to an emergency (even if lying still in the dark at night). Thus, there does not seem to be any advantage of being unconscious and asleep if safety is paramount.

Energy Conservation Theory

Although it may be less apparent to people living in societies in which food sources are plentiful, one of the strongest factors in natural selection is competition for and effective utilization of energy resources. The energy conservation theory suggests that the primary function of sleep is to reduce an individual’s energy demand and expenditure during part of the day or night, especially at times when it is least efficient to search for food.

Research has shown that energy metabolism is significantly reduced during sleep (by as much as 10 percent in humans and even more in other species). For example, both body temperature and caloric demand decrease during sleep, as compared to wakefulness. Such evidence supports the proposition that one of the primary functions of sleep is to help organisms conserve their energy resources. Many scientists consider this theory to be related to, and part of, the inactivity theory.

Restorative Theories

Another explanation for why we sleep is based on the long-held belief that sleep in some way serves to “restore” what is lost in the body while we are awake. Sleep provides an opportunity for the body to repair and rejuvenate itself. In recent years, these ideas have gained support from empirical evidence collected in human and animal studies. The most striking of these is that animals deprived entirely of sleep lose all immune function and die in just a matter of weeks. This is further supported by findings that many of the major restorative functions in the body like muscle growth, tissue repair, protein synthesis, and growth hormone release occur mostly, or in some cases only, during sleep.

Other rejuvenating aspects of sleep are specific to the brain and cognitive function. For example, while we are awake, neurons in the brain produce adenosine, a by-product of the cells’ activities. The build-up of adenosine in the brain is thought to be one factor that leads to our perception of being tired. (Incidentally, this feeling is counteracted by the use of caffeine, which blocks the actions of adenosine in the brain and keeps us alert.) Scientists think that this build-up of adenosine during wakefulness may promote the “drive to sleep.” As long as we are awake, adenosine accumulates and remains high. During sleep, the body has a chance to clear adenosine from the system, and, as a result, we feel more alert when we wake.

Brain Plasticity Theory

One of the most recent and compelling explanations for why we sleep is based on findings that sleep is correlated to changes in the structure and organization of the brain. This phenomenon, known as brain plasticity, is not entirely understood, but its connection to sleep has several critical implications. It is becoming clear, for example, that sleep plays a critical role in brain development in infants and young children. Infants spend about 13 to 14 hours per day sleeping, and about half of that time is spent in REM sleep, the stage in which most dreams occur. A link between sleep and brain plasticity is becoming clear in adults as well. This is seen in the effect that sleep and sleep deprivation have on people’s ability to learn and perform a variety of tasks.

This theory and the role of sleep in learning are covered in greater detail in Sleep, Learning, and Memory.
Although these theories remain unproven, science has made tremendous strides in discovering what happens during sleep and what mechanisms in the body control the cycles of sleep and wakefulness that help define our lives. While this research does not directly answer the question, “Why do we sleep?” it does set the stage for putting that question in a new context and generating new knowledge about this essential part of life.

For more about why we sleep, watch the video Why Sleep Matters and explore Consequences of Insufficient Sleep.


Amarillo Diagnostic Clinic is the only Sleep Center in the Panhandle area accredited by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Give us a call at 806-358-0200 to set up your sleep study.

Making the Most of Your Checkup

For some people, the doctor’s office is a stressful place. Sometimes patients are so stressed, they forget their physician’s instructions! The best way to prevent this from happening to you is to have a plan when you visit your doctor.

A productive checkup increases the potential for a more effective outcome. Before you visit your doctor, check out these seven simple tips:

Preparing for Your Doctor’s Visit

1. Your Symptoms

Your physician can help you most if he or she knows exactly how you are feeling. When you go to see the doctor for a specific reason, write down in advance how you feel. Your physician needs to know who, what, where, when, why and how much – just like a middle school word problem.

Take 15 minutes to write down:

  • What your symptoms feel or look like. Be specific with your descriptors. Here’s a quick list, but use your own words: achy, stabbing, dull, burning, tingly, stiff, sore.
  • Where your symptoms affect you. Do they start in one place or all over?
  • When your symptoms began.
  • Why your symptoms act up. What seems to trigger them.
  • Also write down what reduces or eases your symptoms. Don’t be afraid to include anything that helps. Alcohol, nicotine or other substances can help, and that information will help your doctor.
  • How often do you experience your symptoms and for how long. Are they annoying or crushing?

2. Your Homework

Believe it or not, it helps doctors when you have already looked up your symptoms and have done a bit of research about your condition. This isn’t like your uncle who gets on WebMD and then posts on Facebook that he now has the rarest form of cancer ever.

Researching in advance helps a physician because you can now better understand medical terms they might use. If your throat hurts, glance over the different parts of the throat so you can be specific about your pain and where in the throat you feel discomfort. That helps improve diagnoses than starting with, “It hurts when I swallow.”

Right Before You See the Doctor

3. What Do You Want?

Once you’ve prepared for the doctor, it’s important to prepare for yourself. Write down what you want to know, because – believe it or not – some people get stressed in the doctor’s office and forget what they want to ask. Your checkup is your time. Make sure you get the answers you want. And leave space so you can write down your doctor’s answers (see No. 6).

  • What is wrong with me? What is the name of my disease?
  • Do I need a diagnostic test? Which ones?
  • What are my treatment options? What drugs are you prescribing, and what do I need to know about them?
  • Can the doctor detail their prognosis: What can I expect to happen to me? How long can we expect this to last?
  • Should you reach out for help? Will you experience fatigue, depression or other negative feelings?

4. Where’s Your Medical Information?

  • Did you doctor order tests before your meeting? Make sure you’ve picked up your results in advance. (Nowadays, many imaging results can be sent digitally.)
  • Your doctor is going to ask you what medication you are already taking. Make a list of all your prescriptions and any over-the-counter medication you’ve been taking to alleviate your symptoms. Please add medicines like Tylenol or NyQuil, any natural supplements you’ve been using, or herbal remedies. If they’ve been working well, please let the doctor know that, too.
  • For most appointments, you should bring along a detailed medical history. If your symptoms are especially problematic, make sure to include the health history of your immediate blood relatives.

5. Who Should Your Doctor Contact?

  • Your intake form will ask for emergency contacts.
  • List other doctors who treat you and for what conditions. This should even include chiropractors and holistic healers.
  • Include your preferred pharmacy name, phone and address.

Listening

6. Document New Information

  • Nothing beats an old pen and paper when it comes to learning new information. Write down your doctor’s answers to your questions so you can fully understand them.
  • Take notes on other information the doctor gives you.
  • If a caregiver, spouse or friend joins you on your visit, ask them to take notes for you, so that you can focus on what the doctor is saying.

7. Next Steps

  • Talk to your insurance company about the doctor’s suggestions to make sure you can follow their orders in-network.
  • Ask for authorizations for specialists or other procedures.
  • Make sure you have the phone number of the doctor’s office to follow-up or to ask further questions. Ask for the best person to contact and the best times to call.

Being prepared for a doctor’s appointment will help ensure a more productive office visit. When you are ready to see the doctor, contact us here. We look forward to serving you and will do the very best we can to answer all of your health questions.

Do you have other tips you’d like to share with us? Comment below, please!

There Could Be a Reason Behind Your Headache

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Some information provided by Medline Plus.

The most common type of headache is a tension headache. Tension headaches are due to tight muscles in your shoulders, neck, scalp and jaw. They are often related to stress, depression or anxiety. You are more likely to get tension headaches if you work too much, don’t get enough sleep, miss meals or use alcohol.

Types of Headaches

  • Migraine headaches
    • Pain may be generalized or on one side or both sides of the head
    • Can cause mood swings, fatigue, food craving, nausea, vomiting or vertigo
    • May also cause visual disturbances or sensitivity to light and sound, flashing lights or floaters
    • Usually last 4-72 hours
  • Tension headaches
    • Usually occur at the base of your head and usually on both sides of your head
    • Dull, vice-like pressure around the head
    • Can be triggered by stress or muscle tension, poor ergonomics or body mechanics
    • Can be intermittent and lasting throughout the day
  • Cluster headaches
    • Pain may affect the eye, temple, face and/or neck areas
    • Sudden and excruciating pain that can happen at night, waking you up from sleep
    • May be accompanied with a runny nose on one side or nasal stuffiness
    • May cause watering in one eye
    • Can occur at the same time for several days
  • Chronic daily headaches
    • Daily or nearly daily headache for more than three months
  • Medication overuse headaches
    • Use of an analgesic more than three times weekly for more than three months
  • Sinus headaches
    • Pain or pressure occurring behind the brow bone or cheek bone
    • Often accompanied with nasal or sinus congestion
    • Ear fullness

Other Less Common Types of Headaches

Some headaches originate from the neurological system:

  • Post traumatic headaches
    • Concussion
    • Brain injury
    • Tumors and other causes of increased intracranial pressure
    • Pseudotumor cerebral (too much fluid in the brain compartment)
    • Subdural hematoma (blood outside the brain but putting pressure on the brain)
    • Cervical spine disorders

Some headaches originate from causes outside the neurological system such as:

  • Fever
  • Hypertension
  • Sinusitis
  • Sleep apnea

When to Seek Treatment

  • Sudden onset of excruciating pain
  • First or worst headache of your life
  • Worsening pattern of headaches
  • Fever associated with a headache
  • Rapid onset of headache with strenuous exercise
  • Any change in mental status or level of consciousness
  • New headache in patients under 5 or over 50

Clinical Services Available

  • MRI
  • Lab

Treatment Options

  • Medication to prevent or relieve the pain
  • Physical therapy referrals
  • Botox therapy
  • Occipital nerve blocks

Not all headaches require a doctor’s attention. But sometimes headaches warn of a more serious disorder. Let us know if you have sudden, severe headaches. Get medical help right away if you have a headache after a blow to your head, or if you have a headache along with a stiff neck, fever, confusion, loss of consciousness or pain in the eye or ear. Contact us if you have any questions or to set up an appointment.

3 Fascinating Facts about Bacteria

1. Humans are 99.9% bacterial

Nearly everything that happens in our body is a result of something happening with bacteria in our bodies. Even though we are a “germ crazy” society, it’s interesting to note that our bodies are, in fact, bacterial. The term “mutualism” refers to the study of how different kinds of bacteria work together to perform functions that help support things like attaining nutrients from food, sophisticated immune systems and balancing of emotions and cognition.

2. Breast milk: The original probiotic

Breast milk contains more than 600 types of bacteria, all of which are beneficial for newborn babies to develop important functions in the body. The milk also contains a rich amount of saccharides, or “milk sugars,” that break down in the baby’s colon to provide nutrients and food to the growing baby.

3. Nutrients can only be absorbed with the help of healthy bacteria

Bacteria of many kinds will clump around by the thousands in your colon. Why? Because much of what we eat cannot be absorbed without the help of these thousands of kinds of bacteria. It’s an interesting part of who we are. Theoretically, a germ-free human would, be by, definition malnourished because bacteria is required.

How To Give Vitamin B Injections (Video)

A Step-By-Step Process Guide On How To Give Vitamin B Shots

For personal application, or for caregivers, this video will show you how to safely administer the injection

 

 

Cindy Anderson, RN, MSCN guides us through the process of how to administer a Vitamin B shot either for yourself or as a caregiver who might be administering to another person.

 

Supplies You’ll Need

  1. Alcohol swab, or cotton ball and bottle of alcohol
  2. Syringe (We prefer 25 gauge, 1′ needle – the same as a flu shot)
  3. Physician-prescribed Vitamin B12
  4. You can practice on an orange or lemon, if necessary

 

Vitamin B Injection Guide BSA ADC Supplies You'll Need

 

How To Administer A Vitamin B12 Shot

Vitamin B12 Syringe

Typically dosage is 1cc, or 1ml but your physician may prescribe something different

NOTE: Vitamin B12 bottles typically don’t say “Vitamin B12” on the label. They say “Cyanocobalamin”

  1. Prep the skin: Take the alcohol and clean the surface of the skin and let dry to avoid burning sensations
  2. Remove the cap from the needle
  3. Pull the plunger down to 1cc, or 1ml
  4. Remove the plastic cap from the Vitamin B bottle
  5. Clean the top of the bottle stopper with alcohol swab
  6. On a stable surface, inject the needle through the rubber top of the bottle. You don’t have to be exact. Do what is comfortable for you.
  7. Hold the bottle, and using your dominant hand, push the plunger down (pushing the air into the bottle)
  8. Turn the bottle upside down, hodling your syrninge, pull the needle plunger back
  9. Pull past the 1, draw more than you need. This allows you to be able to push the air bubble out of the needle.
  10. If you have air bubbles, tap it with your finger, or on the side of the table to bring the bubbles to the top.
  11. Pull the syringe fully out
  12. You’re now ready to give the injection
  13. Make a “C” shape with your thumb and index finger of the hand you will not be using to hold the needle
  14. Put the “C” shape around the area of the injection
  15. Pull it taught
  16. Hold the needle however is comfortable for you
  17. Go straight in at a 90• angle
  18. Inject the needle all the way down
  19. Take the C, bracing your pinkie, grab the needle with your thumb and index finger for stability
  20. Keep stable, and using your free hand, push the medicine into the skin
  21. Inject at a gentle pace
  22. Pull straight back out
  23. Take the alcohol swab and rub the area once again
  24. Dispose of the needle in a safe place, like a milk carton, or coffee can. Anything with a lid and is secure

How to give Vitamin B12 Shot

How to give Vitamin B12 Shot

How to give Vitamin B12 Shot

How to give Vitamin B12 Shot

How to give Vitamin B12 Shot

How to give Vitamin B12 ShotHow to give Vitamin B12 Shot

What You Can Do About the Flu

It’s already time to start preparing for the flu season. Don’t delay, get your flu shot today!

A young person in Florida has already died from the flu, and another woman in Kentucky passed away in mid-October from flu-related illness. These aren’t cold weather states; the flu is already starting this year and will be pervasive in the Panhandle before we know it.

Last year marked the highest level of hospitalization for influenza ever recorded. After such a staggering season, the CDC looked back at 2017 to report on the direct costs – such as doctor’s visits and hospital stays as a result of the flu. The annual cost for treating influenza in the United States in 2017 was $4.6 billion.

You Can Make 2018 a Better Flu Season

There are some positive signs for this flu season. The CDC forecasts the H3N2 influenza virus to have a weaker year than 2017 since, unfortunately, so many people were infected with that particular strain last year. Also, Australia’s recent flu cases (their flu season peaks around our Labor Day) were primarily of the H1N1 strain, which is milder than other strains. We are all hopeful this trend will continue.

Signals of a milder flu strain shouldn’t mean it is time to relax against the disease. Last year, 80,000 Americans died from the flu – most of them over the age of 65. If you are a senior citizen, or come into contact with seniors – at church, in restaurants or theaters, or over the holidays – the flu can be deadly. Everyone should get a flu shot, but especially if you are in contact with Amarillo’s more vulnerable citizens.

Flu shots are still the single most effective way to prevent infection and to stay healthy.

From the time a person is exposed to the flu virus, to the time when symptoms begin is an average of about 2 days. Even so, symptoms may begin as early as the very next day or may not appear for as many as 4 days. At that time, most adults are able to infect others from the day before their symptoms develop, up to 5 to 7 days after becoming ill.

The lengthy and unclear time of being contagious is why many people infect others. They may not “feel sick” and still be contagious. Or they may feel they’ve already beaten the disease after their own illness – and may yet still be contagious to others who haven’t been vaccinated. A flu shot is not only the best way to keep yourself healthy, it is the best way you can keep from infecting others.

5 Tips to Combat Flu Season

  1. If you have flu-like symptoms you should always separate yourself from others and go to bed. A good rule of thumb is to assume that you are contagious for 24 hours after your fever goes away. Stay away from others until that time period has passed.

    2. Wash your hands often with soap and water. Use alcohol-based hand sanitizers and don’t touch your eyes, nose or mouth. If you do, wash your hands again.

    3. We’ve all been told to cover our coughs and sneezes. Since a sneeze travels at speeds of 100 miles per hour, they need to be covered. Grab a tissue and use them. And wash your hands.

    4. Clean surfaces and items that have frequent hand contact with anti-bacterial cleaner or wipes.

    5. Get enough sleep. Proper sleep helps keep bodies running at their best, and helps recovery happen quicker. At any stage of the disease, and before infection, sleep is one of the best things you can do to remain healthy.

We are here to care for you! Contact BSA ADC today for a flu shot.

If You Do Become Ill…

We hope that you don’t, but if you do, it’s okay – we can still help you. Prescription antiviral drugs can make illness milder and shorten the time you are sick. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For people with high risk factors, treatment with an antiviral drug can mean the difference between having a milder illness versus a very serious illness that could result in a hospital stay.

Studies show that flu antiviral drugs work best for treatment when they are started within 2 days of getting sick. Starting medication treatments later can still be helpful, especially if the sick person has a high-risk health or is very sick from the flu.

Follow your doctor’s instructions when taking any prescription medication.

Diabetes is Not a Death Sentence

Together with ADC, people can live normal lives even with diabetes.

Over 400 million people worldwide have diabetes, and the disease causes over 1 million deaths every year. The disease also damages the body, amplifying other health concerns and is a secondary cause for even more deaths. It also causes blindness and amputations – it’s a very serious disease which, as of yet, has no cure.

But, there is some good news.

When managed properly, people with diabetes can lead long and productive lives. The Endocrinology Department at ADC deals daily with people managing the disease. Today, let’s learn more about the disease and what is necessary to manage it.

How Diabetes Affects the Body


After eating, carbohydrates in food are broken down into sugars to be carried throughout the body via the bloodstream. The body uses those sugars as energy for regular, daily function. The condition of diabetes disrupts this cycle – creating severe, damaging imbalances in blood sugar levels. There are two ways this imbalance occurs.

In Type I Diabetes, the body’s immune system damages the pancreatic cells responsible for producing insulin. The body’s naturally-produced insulin can no longer aid in breaking down blood sugars. With the body is incapable of producing enough of its own insulin, Type I Diabetes is treated with injections of an insulin replacement.

The second type, Type II Diabetes, is a more common form and is also a progressive form of the disease. This form of diabetes causes insulin resistance over time. The body still produces insulin, but has difficulty utilizing it effectively. There are various medications in pill form to treat Type II Diabetes. As a result of the nature of Type II diabetes, however, the pancreas often wears out due to late detection of the disease or from years of medication. At that point, insulin replacement by injection is – again – necessary.

When caught early, diabetes can easily be treated. The longer someone lives undiagnosed, the worse their health outcome is likely to be. Patients should visit their doctor every three to six months so that the efficacy of their treatment can be re-evaluated.

Good glucose control is essential to prevent the onset of diabetic complications that can can lead to blindness, heart attack or stroke, dialysis, and amputation. But with proper self-care and medical expertise people with diabetes can avoid these complications.

4 Ways To Effectively Manage Diabetes Symptoms

1. Exercise


If diagnosed, one of the best things a person can do for themselves is to exercise on a regular basis. Guidelines recommend a daily exercise regimen for at least 45 minutes that is initiated slowly and built up gradually to avoid injury and to build stamina. Clearance from a physician is imperative for any patient before starting an exercise regimen.

Every person that is overweight significantly increases their chances of contracting diabetes. The Amarillo Diagnostic Clinic has a patient education specialist to assist you in the care and management of diabetes through diet and exercise.

2. Check Your Blood Sugar

People living with this disease check their blood sugar levels regularly with a home glucose monitor. A physician or diabetic educator will prescribe a routine and frequency that best suits a patient’s needs. Most recommend checks before breakfast and before supper.

Not only is checking levels necessary for day-to-day health but recording those numbers daily is another necessary step. At doctor visits, a physician will need those readings to understand the full scope of how the patient is managing their disease.

3. Periodic Checks


Glycohemoglobin: This is a test developed for information about average blood sugar level over the course of two or three months. These checks may occur two to four times a year – varying between patients. The American Diabetes Association recommends that the patient’s diabetic regimen achieves a glycohemoglobin level of less than 7%. Any contributing risk factor for vascular disease should be aggressively assessed and treated.

Cholesterol, triglycerides, low HDL, high blood pressure, and smoking would all be considered factors of risk.

Some medications used to treat elevated blood pressure also have a protective effect in preventing kidney complications of diabetes. Any medication prescribed by a physician should be taken only as directed. Before adding or deleting any medication – including over the counter medications. Patients should consult their doctor about any changes to their prescriptions.

Microalbumin: This urine test is performed yearly to evaluate the likelihood of diabetic kidney involvement.

Ophthalmologist: A visit should be scheduled annually as well. The doctor can evaluate any diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, or other conditions and plan treatment accordingly.

Finally, patients should have an annual comprehensive medical exam – including a treadmill exercise test. Underlying coronary artery disease is often more common in an individual with diabetes and needs early intervention.

4. Sick Days

Living with this disease means that some days are simply going to be worse than others. We refer to them at ADC as “sick days” and they require special consideration. Anything a body perceives as stress has the ability increase blood sugar levels. This stress can be physical or emotional in nature. If a person with diabetes is ill their blood glucose will likely rise – even if they cannot eat.

Sick Day Best Practices for Diabetics

  • Stick to meal plans if able to eat.
  • Continue diabetes medication unless a physician says otherwise.
  • Check with a doctor before taking any new medication.
  • Drink at least one large glass of liquid each hour. If eating, these liquids should be sugar-free.
  • Take a blood sugar test every 4 hours.
  • It is recommended to have someone check on the ill person every few hours, in case the illness progresses.

If in doubt, consult a physician. Early and effective management of these sick days will reduce chances of falling into a diabetic coma.

It Will Be Okay


Taking steps to prevent and control diabetes doesn’t mean life is over. It means eating a tasty, balanced diet, exercising and taking the necessary steps to stay healthy. With these tips, anyone can still take pleasure in life – with diabetes – without feeling deprived.

The Endocrinologists at Amarillo Diagnostic Clinic are thoroughly trained in the management of hormonal and metabolic disorders. Patient education services are available for patients in the care and management of these disorders. We also provide dietary counsel for lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

We are here to help, please contact us if you have any questions or to schedule an appointment.

Beginner’s Guide To Headache Types

Factors, Treatment, Prevention and Signs That Your Headache Requires Medical Attention

Did You Know? Headaches are the most common form of pain that necessitates a visit to the doctor. But many people don’t visit their physician concerning this ailment, and instead rely on over-the-counter medication. While this is a fine short-term fix, it isn’t a sustainable course of action for some conditions. With chronic headaches, it won’t be long before the recommended dosage doesn’t help with headache pain. Exceeding the recommended dosage of medicine for your pain can even cause a headache!

Most often, when your head hurts, you have a tension headache. Often related to stress, depression or anxiety, tension headaches are due to tight muscles in your shoulders, neck or jaw. Lack of sleep, alcohol use, and hunger can cause tension headaches, as can many of the stresses of everyday life.

Not every headache needs to be checked out by your doctor, of course. But the Headache Center at ADC would like to see you if any of these following statements are true for your headache. You should seek treatment in the following circumstances:

  • Sudden onset of excruciating pain
  • First or worst headache of your life
  • Worsening pattern of headaches
  • Fever associated with a headache
  • Rapid onset of headache with strenuous exercise
  • Any change in mental status or level of consciousness
  • New headache in patients under 5 or over 50

There are a number of other common types of headaches. Let’s look at each type and corresponding factors for each.

Sinus Headaches

Sinus headaches are caused by acute infection – usually with fever – producing blockage of sinus ducts. This blockage prevents normal drainage causing a gnawing pain over the nasal area. Often the pain increase in severity throughout the course of the day. Sinus headaches are rare, but migraine and cluster headaches are often misdiagnosed as sinus in origin.

  • Precipitating Factors: Infection, nasal polyps, anatomical deformities, such as deviated septum that blocks the sinus ducts
  • Treatment: Treat with antibiotics, decongestants, surgical drainage, if necessary
  • Prevention: None

Arthritis Headaches

Inflammation of the blood vessels of the head or bony changes in the structures of the neck is the cause of an arthritis headaches. They are recognizable by the pain at the back of head or neck which intensifies on movement.

  • Precipitating Factors: Cause of pain is unknown
  • Treatment: Anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants
  • Prevention: None

Caffeine-Withdrawal Headaches

Caffeine withdrawal headaches are real. They can occur multiple days after consumption of large quantities of caffeine. This headache is a throbbing headache caused by rebound dilation of the blood vessels.

  • Precipitating Factors: Caffeine
  • Treatment: Treat by terminating caffeine consumption in extreme cases.
  • Prevention: Avoiding excess use of caffeine.

Depression and Headaches

Depression is closely linked to chronic pain in the body – including migraine headaches, severe non-migraine headaches, and lower back pain.

  • Precipitating Factors: Causes can originate from a wide variety of complaints. Causes of depression are often categorized as physical, emotional, and psychic.
  • Treatment: Depression is a widespread affliction that can be treated. But diagnosing the presence of depression is frequently missed. Once discovered, however, there are many options for relief.
  • Prevention: Physicians can prescribe tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, or monoamine oxidize inhibitors in the treatment of headaches associated with depression.

Exertional Headaches

Symptoms of exertional headaches include generalized head pain of short duration (minutes to an hour). They occur during or following physical exertion (running, jumping, or sexual intercourse). Passive exertion (sneezing, coughing, moving one’s bowels, etc.) can also bring on these types of headaches.

  • Precipitating Factors: Most (around ninety percent) are related to migraine or cluster headaches. In some cases, exertional headaches may be caused by organic diseases. Your doctor may look for signs of aneurysms, tumors, or blood vessel malformation.
  • Treatment: Extensive testing is necessary to determine the headache cause. Once determined, these are most commonly treated with aspiring, indomethacin, or propranolol. Surgery is occasionally the best way to correct the organic disease.
  • Prevention: Alternative forms of exercise; avoid jarring exercises

Fever Headaches

Fever headaches include generalized head pain that develops with fever, caused by the swelling of the blood vessels of the head.

  • Precipitating Factors: Caused by infection
  • Treatment: Aspirin; acetaminophen; NSAIDs; antibiotics
  • Prevention: None

Hangover Headaches

Migraine-like symptoms of throbbing pain and nausea, but it is not localized to one side. Hangovers can last up to 72 hours after drinking, but most are shorter in duration. Many personal and temporal factors drive the status of these types of headaches including: how much was consumed, level of dehydration, nutritional status, ethnicity, gender, the state of your liver, medications, etc.

  • Precipitating Factors: Alcohol, which causes dilation and irritation of the blood vessels of the brain and surrounding tissue.
  • Treatment: Liquids (including broth); consumption of fructose (honey, tomato juice are a good source)
  • Prevention: Drink alcohol only in moderation

Hunger Headaches

A hunger headache is exactly as it sounds. A lack of proper nourishment causes muscle tension, low blood sugar, and rebound dilation of the blood vessels.

  • Precipitating Factors: Strenuous dieting or skipping meals
  • Treatment: Regular, nourishing meals containing adequate protein and complex carbohydrates
  • Prevention: Regular, nourishing meals containing adequate protein and complex carbohydrates

Hypertension Headaches

Very high blood pressure can trigger an event known as malignant hypertension, or a hypertensive crisis. This is most recognizable with generalized or “hair band” type pain that is most severe in the morning. It diminishes throughout the day.

Malignant hypertension usually is also associated with blurred vision, chest pain, and nausea. Read more about hypertension here.

  • Precipitating Factors: Severe hypertension: over 200 systolic and 110 diastolic
  • Treatment: Treat with appropriate blood pressure medication
  • Prevention: Keep blood pressure under control

Menstrual Headaches

For some women, Migraine-type pain occurs shortly before, during, or immediately after menstruation. For other women, this pain happens at mid-cycle (at the time of ovulation). The cause or trigger is thought to be the change of the level of estrogen. The blood level of this chemical (hormone) falls just before a period.

  • Note: A menstrual headache does not mean a low estrogen level. It is the natural dip of the hormone level that causes the pain.
  • Precipitating Factors: Variances in estrogen levels
  • Treatment: Taking a magnesium supplement might make your headaches shorter and your periods easier. Before beginning a new supplement, discuss this with a doctor. Limiting dietary salt before a period starts will reduce excess water in the body, which could create extra pressure.
  • Prevention: Biofeedback; beta blockers (propranolol, timolol); anti-convulsant (divalproex sodium); calcium blockers; and NSAIDs

Chronic Daily Headaches

This refers to a broad range of headache disorders occurring more than 15 days a month. These headaches are categorized by duration of pain (less than four hours and more than four hours).

  • Precipitating Factors: Typically evolve from transformed migraine. Can be associated with medication overuse. They are not related to chronic tension-type headache, but can evolve from episodic tension-type headaches.
  • Treatment: Depending on the type of CDH, different treatment options exist. It is important to limit analgesic use.
  • Prevention: Based on diagnosis of headache, how long they last, and the number experienced per month. This requires extensive doctor or specialist intervention.

Finding out what triggers a headache or migraine may help to avoid or lessen the effects of headache symptoms. Also, we would love to help. Contact us if you need to schedule an appointment or have any further questions.